Semicolons, Objectively

2012-01-19 00:00:00 +0000 by Alex R. Young

Last week in Programming Styles in the Node Community I discussed the styles of three prominent developers in the Node community. The ensuing debate mainly focused on semicolons. Rather than telling you my opinion on the topic, I'd like to explore it objectively so you can make your own decision on whether to use them or not.

Style and semantics aside: how are semicolons handled by minimizers? Is it safe to write a client-side library without semicolons?

Let's look at the two most popular minimizers according to JavaScript Developer Survey 2011 Results.

YUI Compressor

YUI Compressor can be downloaded as a zip file and includes a jar file in the build/ directory that can be used like this:

java -jar yuicompressor-x.y.z.jar myfile.js -o myfile-min.js --charset utf-8

This basic usage will insert semicolons. If you write a file without semicolons, it'll remove newlines and insert them for you. It'll also add semicolons to the end of a file, so concatenating multiple files is safe.

Closure Compiler

Closure Compiler is also a Java application, and there's a web interface for it at closure-compiler.appspot.com. By default semicolons are also inserted, and a semicolon will again be appended to the end of the file to aid concatenation.

In cases where usage is ambiguous, Closure Compiler will raise JSC_SUSPICIOUS_SEMICOLON. Try this in the web interface:

if (true);
else alert('no');

The Closure Error and Warning Reference documentation explains this warning, which can be turned off:

The compiler assumes that this is a mistake, and that you meant to have a statement between if (true) and the semi-colon.

Both of these libraries will also strip unnecessary semicolons. For example, given this simple example:

function hello(longName) {
  alert('Hello, ' + longName);
hello('New User');

The semicolon after alert will be removed.


Standard ECMA-262 and previous versions of ECMAScript include "Automatic Semicolon Insertion":

Certain ECMAScript statements (empty statement, variable statement, expression statement, do-while statement, continue statement, break statement, return statement, and throw statement) must be terminated with semicolons. [...] For convenience, however, such semicolons may be omitted from the source text in certain situations.

Prior to this edition of ECMAScript, deprecating or removing this feature was discussed by Brendan Eich and Douglas Crockford in es3.1:semicolon_insertion. Crockford said:

Strong language in a spec is not likely to work. A carrot of better features that induce rewriting works better, but nothing is predictable.

This "carrot" approach comes up frequently in the discussion of ECMAScript's development, and it can be seen under the list of Themes in the index to the Harmony namespace at the ECMAScript Wiki: harmony:harmony.


When deciding on JavaScript style, the debate on whether to use semicolons will never end. Objectively we can say that:

Other languages have optional semicolons. Take Ruby for example: the community at large embraced writing code without semicolons. However, many JavaScript developers learned the language without the benefit of newer tools that help work safely without semicolons. Others are working with server-side JavaScript, running code on one platform rather than multiple browsers and meddling HTTP proxies. They're able to embrace styles that were previously deemed "unsafe".

The nature of the language is changing, so expect to see less semicolons in the future.

However, if you like the "machine"-like look of semicolons, and feel more comfortable expressing your intent by using them judiciously, then by all means use them!

Keep your style consistent, and enjoy writing JavaScript.